Electric cars are becoming popular and many governments want to develop new electric vehicles and cars to use their countries. As I wrote about before, the field that electric cars, pioneer is Tesla company. The company is not first company which produce electric cars, but they are very popular nowadays. Tesla also known as company which integration many engineering fields in the same vehicle. In this article I’ll mention about electric car features, technology and future.
Electric cars’ specific features are electric motors and batteries:
Motor Types (AC, DC)
Motor types can be divided two. They are AC or DC motors. AC motors are more effective than DC one and alternating-Current motors are better for continuous power than DC motors. Almost all of vehicles in the market are AC motors. AC motors use with regenerative braking systems in the electric vehicles or hybrid cars, so cars are becoming more efficient. Generally, AC motors run more smoothly and can be precisely controlled so that AC motors are used by many EV.
On the other hand, AC motors have significant disadvantages. They are more expensive than DC Motors and so are the battery packs. They are also more complicated to control. Because battery output is DC, they require a converter which takes up a lot of space.
DC motors are more affordable and easier to control. They also have greater initial torque and higher peak power, the cars which use DC motor can accelerate very quickly, so DC motors use in racer cars. A major disadvantage of DC motors is a tendency to overheat. When the RPM rises, the engine becomes overheated. AC motors do not heat up as DC motors. They also become very large and heavy according to their power output.
Battery Types (Lead-acid, Li-ion, NiMH, Li-Po)
Four types of batteries are found in electric cars. However, lithium polymer batteries are not used very often in vehicles. Lead acid batteries are oldest type of rechargeable battery. Its production costs are less than other batteries. It is toxic and prone to explosion. Lithium ion batteries has high energy-to-mass ratio.
Lithium ion batteries are best option to use in the electric cars and other type of vehicles, but some types are very expensive to produce. Also, they retain their stored energy when not in use but lose capacity with age. Nickel metal hydride [NiMH], batteries good energy-to-mass ratio, and non-toxic which makes for easy recycling. The major disadvantage to nickel metal hydride batteries is that they don't hold a charge very well when they aren't being used.
Kaunas University of Applied Engineering Sciences - Homework